water properties

Question Answer
water molecule is composed of 1 oxygen atom 2 hydrogen atoms.The oxygen end of the molecule carries a – charge and the hydrogen end of the molecule carries a + charge.This causes water molecules to be attracted to other water molecules. what is this? cohesion
What term is used to describe the amount of energy it takes for 1 gram of a substance to be raised one degree in temperature? specific heat
What happens to water when it freezes? it expands and becomes less dense
The buoyant force is determined by…? the amount of water displaced by an object.
As with all substances, water's density changes as its temperature changes. At what temperature is water's density the greatest? 4° C
water molecule is composed of 1 oxygen atom 2 hydrogen atoms.The oxygen end of the molecule carries a – charge and the hydrogen end of the molecule carries a + charge.This causes water to be attracted to other materials that carry an electrical charge. adhesion
The ability of water to act as a solvent for so many substances is due to its…? Polar nature
Which statement is true about the solubility of ions in water? Both cations and anions are soluble in water.
Water is known as the universal solvent. It can dissolve so many different substances because of its…? polar nature.
Why does ice float in water? when water freezes, it expands and becomes less dense
What is the maximum density of pure water? 1 gram/cm3
Which of the following statements about pure water is true? pure water is a neutral substance
What is unusual about the density of ice? It is less than the density of water, so that it floats.
Water is known as the universal solvent because it dissolves a large number of substances.

coronary artery

Question Answer
2-D ADVANTAGES IN CAD EVALUATION Performed immediately
Determines location and extent of LV wall motion abnormalities
Estimates systolic and diastolic function
Serial studies
Assess LV function changes after infarct or reperfusion therapy
Complications identified
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
Ischemia is a reversible imbalance in the myocardial oxygen demand-to-supply ratio
Obstructed coronaries can usually still compensate for demands at rest
When narrowing exceeds 70% of cross sectional area blood flow can’t keep up with demands from: Exercise
Pharmacologic interventions
mental stress
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
Consequences I
Coronary artery occlusion/obstruction
Diastolic dysfunction
Impaired relaxation and decreased compliance
Increased LVEDP
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
Consequences II
Decreased left ventricular ejection fraction
Impaired systolic thickening
Reduction of endocardial motion
Dysynchronous contrac
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
Consequences III
Consequences
Possible LV dilatation
Large infarctions
More increase in LVEDP
CHF develops
Increased heart rate to compensate and maintain adequate cardiac output
WALL MOTION ABNORMALITIES
Describing abnormality:
Hypokinesis – an increase in systolic wall thickening <40%
Akinesis – systolic wall thickening <10%
Dyskinesis – present when wall moves outward during ventricular systole and has wall thinning
CLASSIFICATIONS
MI’s divided into 3 categories:
Subendocardial – involving only the inner layer of the myocardium
Subepicardial – involving both inner and middle layers
Transmural – extending through all three layers of the myocardial walls
EKG FINDINGS T wave inversion suggests ischemia
Elevated ST segment represent acute MI
Prominent peaked T waves show acute MI
Pathologic Q waves show “old” MI
May also see ventricular arrhythmias or other conduction defects
SYMPTOMS Physical examination
May be normal if MI is uncomplicated
Symptoms are usually the last thing to occur
Chest pain
SOB
Nausea
Vomiting
May not occur at all
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION LAB VALUES
CK I
AKA Total CK, creatine phosphokinase, CPK, creatine kinase
Levels rise when muscle or heart cells are injured
Levels begin to rise 4-6 hrs after MI
Highest levels are 18-24hrs after
Will return to normal 2-3 days
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION LAB VALUES
CK II
Can also be seen w/ skeletal muscle damage
If CK is high, a more specific test is needed
LAB VALUES I
CK-MB
AKA CK MB, CPK MB, creatine kinase-MB
CK-MB helps differentiate between heart damage or damage to other muscles
CK-MB can also tell Dr. if clot dissolving drugs are working
LAB VALUES
CK-MB II
Ck-MB to total CK index higher than 2.5-3 indicates high likelihood of heart muscle damage
Some skeletal muscle injury can be severe enough to raise CK-MB levels
LAB VALUES
Troponin
AKA Tn1, TnT, Cardiac specific Troponin I and T
Usually ordered along with other cardiac markers
Troponin is starting to replace CK & CK-MB because it is more specific for heart injury
Troponin Troponin is elevated for longer period of time, 1-2 weeks after a heart attack
Levels are not affected by damage to other muscles
2D DOPPLER EXAM
Sonographer needs:
Clinical history
Prior cardiac events
Cardiac murmurs
Evidence of CHF
Systolic BP
Pulmonary artery cath info in CCU
Hemodynamic info
12 lead EKG for presumed infarct location
IMPORTANT ECHO INFORMATION LV and RV size and function
Wall motion abnormalities
Valve integrity and regurgitation
LV diastolic filling parameters
ECHO FINDINGS 2D evidence of wall motion abnormalities is always seen in transmural infarction
Wall motion abnormalities may or may not be seen where ischemia occurs in the subendocardial myocardium
COMPLICATION OF MI Pericarditis
Pericardial inflammation
May or may not see effusion
Dressler’s syndrome
Delayed form of pericarditis 1-12 weeks post MI
Recurrence is common
Tamponade is rare
Symptoms of Dressler’s Fever
Pleuropericardial pain
Malaise
Pericarditis
Pleuritis
RV infarction Frequent complication of inferior MI
Hemodynamic signs of RV infarction resemble those of cardiac tamponade
Mitral regurgitation Common complication of acute or recent MI
papillary muscle rupture can occur and cause MR
Flail leaflet seen
Papillary muscle dysfunction may occur due to localized ischemia with underlying wall motion abnormality
LV aneurysm:I May form at the site of infarction
Most commonly involved are anterior wall and apex
Distortion of LV contour at end diastole and end systole
Thrombus frequently forms
LV aneurysm:II “hinge point” demarcates the infarct zone and aneurysm formation from normal myocardium
LV thrombus after MI: Higher incidence with aneurysm formation
Thrombus can spontaneously resolve, or resolve after anticoagulant therapy
LV pseudoaneurysm I Myocardial rupture contained by parietal pericardium
True aneurysm involves myocardium
Usually seen post recent MI
LV pseudoaneurysm II
Can also be seen in the following cases:
Cardiac trauma
Myocarditis
Infective endocarditis
Cardiac surgery
LV PSEUDOANEURYSM III There is a likelihood of rupture common in these patients
Small communicating neck creates a gradient
Thrombus may extend into neck and increase the size
Differential diagnosis of LV PSEUDOANEURYSM Loculated pericardial effusion
Pericardial cyst
LV diverticulum
LV DIVERTICULOSIS A rare congenital cardiac malformation which may be confused w/ aneurysm
Small circular echo free space arising from LV w/ all 3 layers intact
Doppler may demonstrate low velocity, systolic-diastolic flow w/in the chamber
Ventricular septal rupture or VSD post MI: New systolic murmur accompanied by signs of hypoperfusion after acute MI
Could be rupture or severe MR
2D, color flow, and Doppler are used together to detect rupture
LV free wall rupture: Predisposing factors
Large MI
Lateral or posterolateral
Elderly patient
Post MI hypertension
No prior CAD
LV FREE WALL RUPTURE Seen within 48 hours of acute MI
Rupture site is between the zone of necrotic and normal myocardial tissue
Cardiac tamponade can develop
This causes hypotension and bradycardia
Survival is rare

BMS 307: Anatomy

Question Answer
blood specialized fluid connective tissue that distributes nutrients, oxygen, and hormones in the body.
Plasma liquid matrix of blood; contains dissolved proteins
formed elements blood cells and fragments found in blood, such as red and white blood cells
Red blood cels(erythrocyte) biconcaved discs with a thin middle region that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
White blood cells(Leukocytes) components of the immune system.
Platelets small, membrane enclosed packages of cytoplasm that contain enzymes and other factors for blood clotting
whole blood is a mixture of plasma and formed elememts
Albumins major contributors to osmotic pressure of the plasma. Transport fatty acids, steroid hormones, and other substances. The smallest plasma proteins
Globulins contain both immunoglobulins and tranport globulins.
Target globulins bind small ions, hormones, or compounds that are either insoluble or might be filltered out of the blood at the kidneys
Fribinogen is essentail for normal blood clotting. interact forming large insoluble strands of fibrin
Hematocrit value the value indicates the percentage of whole blood contributed by formed elements.
rouleaux stacks of red blood cells that allows them to pass through small vessels
Neutrophils multi-lobed nucleus~white blood cell, engulfs pathognes
Eosinophils horseshoe shaped nucleus~ White Blood cell, attack anything with antibodies
Basophils Very dark cell, cannot see the nucleus~white blood cell, enter danaged tissue and release histamine
Monocyte Kidney bean shaped nucleus~white blood cell, enter tissue to become free macrophages
Lymphocyte very round nucleus~white blood cells, cells of lymphoid system providing defense aga
Immunoglobulins are antibodies that attack foreign proteins and pathogens.
Fribinogen is essentail for normal blood clotting. interact forming large insoluble strands of fibrin
Hematocrit value the value indicates the percentage of whole blood contributed by formed elements.
blood type determined by the presence or absence of specific components in erythrocyte plasmalemmae
surface antigen(agglutinogens) antigens present ont he surface of red blood cells. Ex Type A has A antigens, Type B has B, and Type O has neither
RH factor can be postive or negative
Surface antibodies(agglutinins) locates on red blood cells and will attack foreign surface antigens. Type A has B anitbodies. Type O has A and B antibodies
agglutination when a surface antibodies meets its surface antigen the blood cells clump together. These can plug small vessel
Hemopoiesis the process of blood cell formation

7th science STAAR Vocabulary

Question Answer
Preventative Safety Equipment Equipment, such as goggles, used to prevent accidents from happening in the lab
Emergency Safety Equipment Equipment, such as fire blankets or eye washes, used when there is an emergency in the lab
Procedures Steps to follow
Photosynthesis The process where plants transform radiant energy from the sun in to chemical energy in glucose
Chlorophyll The pigment that gives plants it's green color.
Stomata

The place on a plant where gas exchange takes place
Transpiration Plants release water vapor into the atmosphere
Chloroplast The part of a plants cell where photosynthesis takes place
Glucose A simple sugar made by plants during photosynthesis
Trophic Level A level in a food web where all organisms have the same role
biomass the total amount of living organisms (plants and animals) in an area
Producer organisms that make their own food through photosynthesis
Consumer Organisms that must eat other organisms to get energy
Decomposer organisms that break down dead plants and animals and put nutrients back into the soil
Respiration The process where plants turn glucose into usable energy
Turgor Pressure The amount of fluid in plant cells that give a plant its stiffness
Geotropism A plants response to gravity
Work A force acting through a distance (causing movement)
Joule A unit of measurement for work
Newton A unit of measurement for Force
Catastrophic Event An event, such as a hurricane or tornado, that causes extensive damage to ecosystems and humans
drought A long period of little to no rainfall
Earthquake Faults in the earth collide and release pressure
tsunami A very large wave caused by an earthquake in the ocean
flood A large amount of water filling or moving in areas beyond where it normally would be
hurricane An ocean storm with violent winds and rain
Tornado a destructive funnel of violently rotating winds
Volcano A mountain or hill with an opening where lava can escape
Wildfire a large, destructive fire that spreads quickly
Ecoregion an area that has similar land, soil, and species characteristics
weathering The breaking down of rocks
erosion The carrying away from sediments
deposition The dropping of sediments after they have been carried a distance
processes actions or steps
reshape shape differently; change
Environment An area with both living and non living components
watershed An area where waters from different areas flow in to a larger body of water
aquifer a permeable rock area below ground which can carry water
groundwater water underground
porosity the ability to absorb fluids
permeability the ability to allow liquids to flow through
percolation The slow movement of liquid through an object
pollution the introduction of something that is poisonous or harmful to an environment
infiltration small groups or things moving into an area
Atmosphere
Comet
Gravitational Pull
Mass
Meteoroid
Microgravity
Slingshot Effect
Solar Radiation
Solar System
Weight
Asteroid
Ecosystem
Sustainability
Biodiversity
Biome
Population
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Climax Community
Pioneer Species
Microhabitat
Organelle
Organ
Organ System
Tissue
Cell
Organism
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Vacuole
Cell Wall
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Function
Structure
Cholorplast
Spontaneous Generation
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Cell Theory
System
Adaptation
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Digestive System
Excretory System
Reproductive System
Integumentary System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Thermal Energy
Molecule
Organic
Chemical Change
Respiration
Digestion
Carbohydrates
Physical Change
Homeostasis
Stimulus
Internal Stimulus
External Stimulus
Fight or Flight
Phototropism
Geotropism
Traits
Gene
Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
Heredity
Dominant Trait
Recessive Trait
Punnett Square
Genotype
Phenotype
DNA
Chromosome
Allele
Natural Selection
Selective Breeding
Dichotomous Key
Exoskeleton
Variation
Adaptation
Camouflage
Migration
Hibernation
Phototropism
Appendages

Succession

Question Answer
Ecosystem
Sustainability
Biodiversity
Biome
Population
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Climax Community
Pioneer Species
Microhabitat

Cell Structures

Question Answer
Organelle
Organ
Organ System
Tissue
Cell
Organism
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Vacuole
Cell Wall
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Function
Structure
Chloroplast
Spontaneous Generation
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
Cell Theory

Body Systems

Question Answer
System
Adaptation
Circulatory System
Respiratory System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Digestive System
Excretory System
Reproductive System
Integumentary System
Nervous System
Endocrine System