SOC1110 Chapter 1 Quiz for Clark State Community College

Question Answer
Sociological Perspective how the context in which we live affects us and how we see the world
society a group of people who share a culture and a territory
social location the "corners of life" that people occupy because of where they are located in society (job, income, gender and how it affects behavior)
Science (as opposed to tradition) requires that something can be tested by research
scientific method using objective, systematic observations to test theories
positivism applying the scientific method to the social world (suggested by Auguste Comte)
Auguste Comte "founder of sociology", suggested positivism- applying the scientific method to the study of the social world, coined the term "sociology"
Herbert Spencer "second founder of sociology", Social Darwinism- societies evolve from a lower "barbarian" state to a higher "civilized" state, and we should not interfere with this process (no social reform)
Karl Marx CLASS CONFLICT- 2 social classes inherently at odds, the proletariat (exploited workers) will eventually overthrow the bourgeoise (those with the capital, machines, land, etc.)
Emile Durkheim studied suicide and found that SOCIAL INTEGRATION- the degree to which people are connected to their social groups) affects suicide rates; got sociology recognized as its own field (first sociology academic appointment)
Max Weber PROTESTANT ETHIC- suggested that religious change is the origin of economic change (Protestantism= capitalism)
W.E.B. DuBois co-founder of NAACP, studied relations between African Americans and Caucasians
Jane Adams offered insight into social classes, founded Hull House (refuge), social activist
Talcot Parsons developed abstract theories on society, C. Wright Mills followed and urged sociologists to get back to social reform
C. Wright Mills urged sociologists to move again beyond theories and work towards social reform
basic sociology analyzing some aspect of society with NO GOAL OTHER THAN KNOWLEDGE
applied sociology using sociology to solve problems
public sociology middle ground between research and reform, using sociology for public good (e.g. analyzing problems and suggesting solutions, criticism of social policy)
symbolic interactionism symbols (things to which we attach meaning) are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another
functional analysis society is a whole unit, made up of interrelating parts that work together, each with a certain function
conflict theory opposing viewpoints run throughout society, started as studying class conflict, or the opposing viewpoints between the workers and the capitalists
nonverbal interaction gestures, use of space, etc.
macro level the large scale patterns of society (functionalists and conflict theorists)
micro level focus on social interaction, what people do when they are in one another's presence (symbolic interactionists)

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