Exam one

Question Answer
Case Study about Jason the Architect (build homes) Kenyans
Built public house in Nairobi, Kenya. were the food is cooked is unsuitable for guest to see and Jason had made a open floor plan. he should of investigated the culture before building these homes.
Cultural anthropologists apply the concept of enculturation to refer to the process by which people acquire their own culture
through the learning process. This concept:
is similar to socialization, but emphasizes that an individual learns her/his entire cultural system and cultural sat_flash_1 through this learning process.
Holism is an important foundation concept for understanding culture. Holism involves: an approach that studies humans by examining all aspects of the human experience.
The concept of “culture” includes: the idea people learn, the material things people share, the way people behave.
The anthropological foundation perspective that a culture’s customs and ideas should be viewed within the context of that culture
is known as:
a. cultural relativism
Cultural anthropologists compare and contrast the concepts of ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. Which of these statements is
true of the concept/attitude of cultural relativism? Cultural relativism:
a. means that a culture’s traits should be viewed in the context of that culture’s opportunities and limitations
b. means that a culture’s traits should be analyzed in terms of their function, meaning, and fit with other traits inside that culture
Cultural anthropologists distinguish between emic and etic perspectives. An emic explanation for an event in a culture would be an
explanation that:
Drives from the natives of that culture.
In a culture with a “collective” orientation [like the Inuit/Eskimo], which of these would be valued: Sharing
One way cultures are shaped is that all cultures must be at least minimally adapted to their external environments. To say that
culture is adaptive means that:
culture functions to help a population survive in a particular environment
9. Symbols are one of the most critical components of culture. Which of the following statements is not true of symbols? Symbols are completely separate from language.
Cultural anthropologists apply the concept of holism to interpret the way a culture is structured and functions. They view culture
as a whole integrated cultural system. To say a cultural system is integrated means:
all of the cultural parts are tightly connected to all other cultural parts.
It is helpful to apply the concept of “culture shock” to interpret your feelings and reactions when encountering other cultures.
Culture shock includes:
the psychological distress that can result from trying to operate in an unfamiliar culture.
Ethnocentrism is an important concept in cultural anthropology that is used to interpret real world problems because it can affect
one’s ability to objectively understand other cultures. Ethnocentrism involves the belief that:
b. other cultures are inferior to one’s own.
3. According to our class discussions about cultural assumptions, which one of the following statements is true d. Concepts of food, time, and personal space are all likely to be different in different cultures of the world.
Gestures are a large part of non-verbal communication. In the U.S. you might use the “thumbs up” hand gesture to signify
everything is “A-OK”. If you did this in Greece, Italy, Latin America, or West Africa, it would:
would have a negative connotation that might land you in trouble.
LaLone studied what group Quechua Indians
Briggs had to deal with a different father-daughter relationship while studying what group Inuit/Eskimo
The subfield of cultural anthropology that studies living cultures by living with the people and using fieldwork techniques to learn directly from the people first-hand is called… ethnography
Sociologists emphasize that an individual learns her/his society’s social rules and values through the shaping force of social
interactions with family members, siblings, teachers, peers, co-workers, and other
socialization Agent
To examine another society’s customs objectively (without bias or prejudice) in order to understand the reasons why that
society’s customs fit within the context of the cultural system in which they actually occur, is a social science approach
cultural relativism
Explain the difference between structured and unstructured interviews: Structured= Same Question,sequence, and conditions: short answer question(yes no): In personal Ex mail-telephone surveys.
Unstructured= open ended question= mixed order and conversational:Direct and personal:takes hours and large amount of data
Cultural Anthropology differences & similarities in contemporary and historically recent cultures.
Linguistic Anthropology to under- stand the complex relationships between language & other aspects of human behavior and thought.
Archaeology reconstruction of past cultures by excavating their material remains.
Physical Anthropology Focuses on using human remains to understand humans as biological beings
The Goal of Cultural Anthropology to gain the broadest & most complete
understanding of what it means to be “human” by viewing
the full range of human cultures, through comparison of the
way cultures are organized in different times & places
Foundation Concept: Cross-cultural comparison studying all
varieties of societies around the world, including
both small-scale & large-scale societies, to gain an
understanding of cultural similarities & differences
Cultural Anthropology Evidence: It is based on the body of evidence collected through ethnography & ethnohistory.
Ethnography the study & description of particular
groups of living peoples using fieldwork techniques to collect evidence directly from the people.
a written account of how a single population lives
Ethnographic fieldwork living in the community under
study, and using ethnographic
research methods to learn directly
about the culture.
Ethnohistory the study of recently-living people
using historical records as the primary evidence.
Andes of Peru
Ethnography of the market places.
CASE STUDY: MARY LALONE Inca: Quechua Indian Ancestors
main point it was a Ethnohistory study
CASE STUDY MARY LALONE Appalachian coal mining and farming families
combination of ethnography & ethnohistory. Used both interviewing and learn from historical documents.
Important Difference between Anthropology and sociology is…. Sociology= industrial west, large scale societies, use questioner, sampling and statistical data
Anthropology = study small cultures, observe and record data from daily life called fieldwork methods.
Sociology the study of society and human behaviors as they are affected
by social interactions within social groups and organizations
The sociological perspective understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context. It stresses that people’s social experiences the groups to whom they belong and their experiences within these groups underlie & shape their behaviors.
Focus of Sociologist= SOCIETY, the SOCIAL
ORGANIZATION of GROUPS within society, and
the ways in which SOCIAL INTERACTIONS in
groups influence people’s behavior
Society the people who share a culture and a
territory.group of people,culture, territory, sense of identity, & language(s) for communicating
The Cultural System the view that culture is a whole system
in which all the component parts
are integrated
holistic approach (Anthropology) integrated system in which all
the components are integrated
(interlinked. One little change can change the whole culture.
(Smaller scale, Qualitative)
social organization component (sociology) – it wants to know
how social organization is structured, & how
people are shaped by their social
relationships as members of groups
(large scale, Quantitative)
Foundation Concept= Holism a holistic approach that attempts to
study all aspects of human culture. using a cultural system method.
Foundation Concept= Ethnocentrism=
Short answer
the belief that one’s own culture & way of life is superior to all others, & by extension, judging all other societies’ customs by the standards of your own culture (as worse, inferior, etc.).
Foundation Concept= Cultural Relativism within the context of the
cultural system in which they actually occur to try
to understand the logic & reasons behind that
society’s customs
CASE STUDY: Cultural Relativism Inuit (Eskimo)
North America Artic
They leave their elder out to die because It hard to find food and it hard to feed a extra mouth that wouldn't help produce food again.Look at this in a cultural relativism perspective.

individual orientation. Example United states
Individual needs/wants
are placed over the
group needs/wants
collective orientation Example= Inuit (Eskimo) also Asia cultures
Group needs and what are place over individual needs and wants.
Case Study: Yanomamo Yanomamo
South America
as part of their diet and consider some insects,
like green caterpillars,
to be exceptional gourmet
treats. They do this because insect are a source of high protein. which is important in their culture.
Foundation Concepts: EMIC a cultural insider’s (native’s) view on why/how things occur, using categories, concepts, & perceptions meaningful to the people who live within the culture
Foundation Concept: ETIC a cultural outsider’s view on why/how things occur, using the outsider’s categories & concepts to describe the culture being studied
Cultural assumptions do NOT hold up
cross-culturally; they are “culture bound,”
meaning that they are learned assumptions that are
Example:Assumptions about beauty and marks of group identity.
part of a particular cultural system & those assumptions often do not hold up in other cultures
Asia (Myamar/Burma)
Emic View= It a part of their culture and they like them."beauty in the Eye of the beholder"
Emic perspective
( not the same as cultural relativism)
he Padang women express their own “emic” views about
why they choose to wear the brass neck rings (different from outsiders’ views)
Culture of shared beliefs, behaviors, & artifacts
that the members of a society
use to adapt to their physical &
social environment,
& that is transmitted from generation
to generation through learning
Applied Anthropology & Sociology Examples: the application of social science methods in community & !
world development, education, the corporate business world, & in
medical work
Culture Shock The psychological disorientation When trying to operate in a different society, culture,
symptoms = homesickness, withdraw, sleeping more. ETC
Laos Mountains
They were in culture shock everything had changed. They were introduced to toilets and planting in specific ares. and not taking other people food.
3 categorize of Culture Artifacts=Material possessions
made or modified for use by humans
Beliefs = Ideas, values, attitudes,
assumptions, etc.stored in people’s heads
Behaviors= Behavior patterns, actions,
interactions, customs, etc. of people
What is Culture: SHARED For something to be cultural,
it must have a meaning shared
by most people in a society.
Help predict how ever one will behave
What is culture adaptive Culture stands between humans & the environment.
Culture is what humans create & use to adapt to the environment.
What is Culture learned. Enculturelization and socialization.
Enculturation Learning process, human learn about our cultures.
Socialization Learn process, skills, attitudes, roles and norms considered appropriate.
socialization Agents People and groups that teach us our culture and influences our orination to life.
Culture is not a biological instinct Example we have to eat to live but it our culture that teaches us what, when and were to eat.
Eli-mating body wast another example.
Values Broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct and good. US value individuality and achievement and success
Norms Social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate bahviors based on shared understanding
Folkways Customary behavior for daily activity
Example clothing
Mores attach greater moral values to
Example theft and Rape
LAWS Norm that are formalized and enforced by political organizations.
Statuses Social position in group or society.
Ascribed= assigned by birth Ex Daughter
Achieved= accomplishment = ex doc Ashlee Onek
Roles behaviors that are accepted for a status.
Ex roles for professors and students
Case Study : Jean Briggs Inuit/Eskimo
Eskimo are not sposed to speak out in anger and believe in sharing. She almost got kicked out for speaking out in anger. this is a strong role for the Eskimos
What is Culture; Changes and evolves Cultural evolution= dynamic not static.
What is culture; a system of integrated parts
Symbols unify people, identify objects, powerful, provide meaning, part of language,
Cultural emphasis the vocabulary
in a language emphasizes words
that are adaptively important
in the culture.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis people’s language shapes their perceptions and
view of the world.
There are several word for snow for Eskimos
Nonverbal Communication: These are learned behaviors that vary according to the
particular cultural system that you grow up in, as shown by
anthropologist Edward T. Hall.
– Facial expressions
– Gestures
– Eye contact
– Posture
– Treatment of time
Case Study; Cuban American Cuban American
New York
Were talking to a police officer and got to close because they had a diffrent cultural perspective on space. cause a big issue
Ethnographic Fieldwork Long-term immersion in a
culture with the goal of learning about the culture — involves systematic
data collection to gain accurate & reliable data (evidence) about the
cultural system of a society
Preparation: Formulating the research
problem, funding, personal preparation
Contact person person who helps
make initial introductions
Gaining acceptance Rapport-building = building trust
• Trying to adopt appropriate behavior/roles
Field journal a place to put field notes
Informants people knowledgeable about their own culture who
assist the ethnographer
Data-gathering Techniques: these are the actual data-gathering procedures you
carry out to collect the cultural data
four categorizes
Relatively unobtrusive techniques(data gathering) Simple observation
• Mapping
• Census taking
• Document analysis
Participant-observation (data gathering) the fieldwork technique that involves participating in the
participating in the
culture & actively observing at the very same time –
simultaneously doing both! The most important fieldwork
technique in cultural anthropology.
culture & activel
Interviewing ( data gathering) Structured & unstructured interviews
. Photography & mechanical devices ( data Gathering) very obtrusive
CASE STUDY Photographing rural Kenya
Peter Suttons
East Africa Islamic area
belive that having theri photo taking captures their soal and got very mad at Peter for taking the pic
Urban Anthropology impact city would have on traditional rural areas. how rural and non rural area effect each other.
Medical Anthropology study how biological and sociological factor affect illness and diseases.
Example Dr Paul Farmer worked with people in Hatit to find a cure for HIV and Tuberculosis
Paleontology analysis of disease in ancient population
Development anthropology focused effort on pointing out why and how development programs were unsuccessful because they failed to account for local cultural factors .
Environmental Anthropology examine how human population interact with their environment.
psychological anthropology relationship between culture and psychological make up of individuality and groups
Case study Susan American
Susan Squires
United States
works as a new product developer,learned about breafest
Kid eat on the run
leave house with out eating cause not hungry that earlie
Banananas big breafest item.
Go-Gurts=Easy to eat, health, and fun
Regional Expertises study in a culture for a long time and gaining alot of information about that culture
Topical Expertise gleaned from fairly specific anthropology studies in one part of the world is likely to have policy relvent to other parts
Subcultures are subsets of the wider culture
Ex= Japanese-American
Enculturation aqurie our culture idea values and behaviors by growing up in it
Mono-chronic culture United states, Germany, Switzerland
Do one thing at a time, high value on punctuality,prices scheduled
polychronic do many thing at once, no value in punctuality, social relationship are more important
Cultural universals worked out problem that face all human societies.
Economic systems, system about marriage and family, educational systems, social control systems, supernatural beliefs, communication
Organic Analogy the earliset functionalist idea that culture systems are integrated into a whole cultural unit in much the same way that the various parts of a biological organism function to maintain the health of the organism
invention new combination of exciting cultural features
innovation recombination of existing cultural items
Cultural Diffusion spreading of a thing, idea and behavior pattern from one culture to another
acculturation specific type of diffusion that take place as a result of sustained contact between two societies
Linked changes single technology innovation may well set off a series of changes in other parts of the culture
Case Study Ferraro Rural Georgia
Kewanda grew up in french speaking Zari
said he was not a good team player, did not take cristism well, aloof and arogen. having a college degree was huge for him and he had the thought he was a celebratie. His language was always exgera
Ethnolinguistics ( cultural linguistics) relationship between language and culture.
stages select a research problem, research design, collecting data, analyzing the data, interpreting the data,
case study Food Tanzania and Bolivia
food insecurity
they only consider physiological reason to need food. take in a count all factor related to getting food. there is a hunger season.
Why did Chagnon have to do to get the yahomamo to treat him seriously as they would treat a yanomma man?
Explain behavior?
Shourt answer
Napoleon a Chagnon
Had to become sly, aggressive, intemidating and pushy to fit in.
He hat to shout back at the Yanomamo with the passion and anger they had shouted at him with. he had to prove he was serious with his tone of voice and use his body

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