Embalming glossary A-H

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Nine region plan: by means of four imaginary planes, two of which are horizontal (indicated by lines drawn across the right and left 10th ribs and across the right and left anterior superior iliac spines) and two sagittal (indicated by lines drawn from mi Abdominal Anatomical Regions
antemortem injuries resulting from friction of the skin against a firm object resulting in the removal of the epidermis Abrasion
to touch or contact as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyes Abut
group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and cavity embalming fluids; includes but is not limited to hardening compounds, preservative powders, sealing agents, mold preservative agents, and pack application agents Accessory Chemical
AIDS; a specific group of diseases or conditions which are indicative of severe Immunosuppression related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); persons dead having had AIDS may exhibit conditions such as wasting syndrome, extrapulmonar Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Exposure Limits ussually one half of the osha legal limit for regulate substance established to ensure adequate protection of employees at exposures below the OSHA limits, but to minimize the compliance burdens for employers whose employees have exposure Action Level/ AL
that pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body Actual Pressure
soft whitish crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats Adipocere (grave wax)
in the presence of free oxygen Aerobic
to disperse as an aerosol; minute particles of blood and water become atomized and suspended in air when water under pressure meets the blood drainage or when flushing an uncovered sink Aerosolization
intravascular; the increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels Agglutination
(moribund) decrease in body temperature immediately before death; the body tissues cool; is an antemortem temperature change Agonal Algor
in reference to blood, a change from a fluid into a thickened mass Agonal Coagulation
the loss of moisture from the living body during the agonal state Agonal Dehydration
escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravascular location immediately before death Agonal Edema
increase in body temperature immediately before death Agonal Fever
period immediately before somatic death Agonal Period
See Translocation Agonal Translocation
post mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature Algor Mortis
method of injection-drainage in which embalming solution is injected and then injection is stopped while the drainage is opened Alternate Drainage
building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis; their basic formula is NH2-CHRCOOH – an amino group, an alpha carbon, any aliphatic or aromatic radical, and a carboxyl group Amino Acid
in the absence of free oxygen Anaerobic
severe generalized edema Anascara
a descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures that are known Anatomical Guide
points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures; used to designate the boundaries of arteries Anatomical Limits
the body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs are pointed away from the body Anatomical Position
localized abnormal dilation or out pocketing of a blood vessel resulting from a congenital defect or a weakness of the vessel wall Aneurysm
an embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels Aneurysm Hook
an embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels, which has an eye in the hook portion of the instrument for placing ligatures around vessels Aneurysm Needle
a multipurpose instrument used in the embalming process Angular Spring Forceps
deviations from normal Anomalies
in front of the elbow/in the bend of the elbow Antecubital
before death Antemortem
toward the front Anterior
a bony protuberance, that can be palpated topographically, found on the ilium, the superior, broad portion of the hipbone; the origin of the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals Anticoagulant Fluid
condition in which the manifestations of life are feebly maintained Apparent Death
the concentrated, preservative, embalming chemical that will be diluted with water to form the arterial solution for injection into the arterial system during vascular embalming; the purpose is for inactivating saprophytic bacteria and rendering the body Arterial (Vascular) Fluid
the mixture of arterial (vascular) fluid and water which is used for the arterial injection and may include supplemental fluids Arterial Solution
a tube used to inject embalming fluid into the blood vascular system Arterial Tube
the term applied to a number of pathological conditions causing a thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries Arteriosclerosis
place of union between two or more bones Articulation
accumulation of serious fluids in the peritoneal cavity Ascites
freedom from infection and from any form of life; sterility Asepsis
insufficient intake of oxygen resulting from numerous causes Asphyxia
withdrawal of gas, fluids and semi-solids from body cavities and hollow viscera by means of suction with an aspirator and a trocar Aspiration
a drug that causes contraction of body tissues and canals Astringent
fatty degeneration or thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in arthosclerosis Atheroma
apparatus used for sterilization by steam pressure, usually at 250 F / 121 C for a specific time Autoclave
self-destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance Autolysis
a postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition; a necropsy Autopsy
destructive to bacteria Bactericidal Agent
agent that has the ability to inhibit or retard bacterial growth; no destruction of viability of the microorganism is implied Bacteriostatic Agent
resins combined with oil; a fragrant, resinous, oily exudate from various trees and plants Balsamic Substance
THE arm pit Base of the Axillary Space
biological agent or condition that constitutes a hazard to humans Biohazard
irreversible somatic death Biological Death
a chemical which lightens a skin discoloration Bleaching Agent
tissue that circulates through the vascular system and is composed of approximately 22% solids and 78% water Blood
the pressure exerted by the blood in the living body on the arterial wall measured in millimeters of mercury Blood Pressure
OSHA REGULATION (29CFR 1910-1030) regulating the employee's exposure to blood and other body fluids. OSHA DEFINITIONS: Blood. Human blood, human blood components, and products made from human blood Bloodborne Pathogen Rule
pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans; these pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Bloodborne Pathogens
the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface Contaminated
laundry which has been soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials or may contain sharps Contaminated Laundry
any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to, needles scalpels, broken glass, and exposed wire ends Contaminated Sharps
controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed (e.g. prohibiting recapping of needles, and not allowing blood splatter or aerosolization of blood while draining during the embalming process Work Practice Controls
discolorations resulting from changes in blood composition, sat_flash_1, or location, either intravascular or extravascular Blood Discoloration
circulatory network composed of the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins Blood Vascular System
pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans Bloodborne Pathogens
the separation and pushing aside of the superficial fascia leading to blood vessels and then the deep fascia surrounding the blood vessels, utilizing manual techniques or round ended instruments which separate rather than cut the protective tissues Blunt Dissection
acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle Boil
Temporary Interrupted Suture; individual stitch knotted at the tissue edge; maybe applied prior to embalming to align tissues Bridge Suture
vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums, and teeth Buccal Cavity
self-contained, soft rubber manual pump designed to create pressure to deliver fluid as it passes through one-way valves located within the bulb; it is used to deliver fluids; it cannot be used for aspiration Bulb Syringe
an embalming chemical which affects the stabilization of the acid-base (ph) balance within the solutions and in the embalmed tissues Buffers
dead human body used for medical purposes; including transplantation, anatomical dissection, and study Cadaver
Livor Mortis; postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of the blood Cadaveric Lividity
a prolongation of the last violent contraction of the muscles into the rigidity of death; instantaneous rigor mortis Cadaveric Spasm
the dome-like superior portion of the cranium; that portion removed during the cranial autopsy Calvarium
a device used as a means of fastening the Calvarium after a cranial autopsy Calvarium Clamp
formation of new channels in tissue Canalization
minute blood vessels, the walls of which comprise a single layer of endothelial cells; capillaries connect the smallest arteries (arteriole) with the smallest veins (venule) and are where pressure filtration occurs Capillaries
ability of substances to diffuse through capillary walls into the tissue spaces Capillary Permeability
a compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen; sugars, starches, and glycogen Carbohydrate
circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that ends in suppuration and is accompanied by systemic symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis Carbuncle
a cancer-causing chemical or material Carcinogen
the formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis Cavitation
direct treatment, other than vascular (arterial) injection, of the sat_flash_1s of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and injection Cavity Embalming
embalming chemicals which are injected into the cavities of the body following the aspiration in the cavity embalming; cavity fluid can also be used as the chemical in hypodermic and surface embalming Cavity Fluid
death of the individual cells in the body Cellular Death
ascending and/or arch of the aorta Center of Fluid Distribution
right atrium of the heart Center of Venous Drainage
embalming machine that uses an electrical pump to create pressure either pulsating or non-pulsating Centrifugal Force Machine
a major agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, concerned withal phases of control of communicable, vector borne, and occupational diseases Center for Disease Control and Prevention/CDCP (CDC)
substances that bind metallic ions such as EDTA (Ethylenediamine-tetracetic acid)- used as an anticoagulant in embalming solutions Chelate
a change in the body's chemical composition that occurs after death such as hemolysis Chemical Postmortem Change
the application of chemical reagents in the treatment of disease in man, causing an elevated preservation demand Chemotherapy
a phase of somatic death lasting from 5-6 minutes in which life may be restored Clinical Death
chemical and physical agents that bring about coagulation Coagulating Agents
the process of converting soluble protein into insoluble protein by heating or contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde; the solidification of a sol into a gelatinous mass; agglutination is a specific form of coagulation Coagulation
a fluid used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of vascular (arterial) solutions Coinjection Fluid
the irreversible cessation of brain activity and loss of consciousness; death beginning at the brain Coma
disease that may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between individuals by an infectious agent Communicable Disease
disinfection practices carried out during the embalming process Concurrent Disinfection
method of drainage in which drainage occurs continuously during vascular (arterial) injection Concurrent Drainage
rounded articular process of a bone Condyle
mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye Conjunctiva
disease that may be transmitted between individuals, with reference to the organism that causes the disease Contagious Disease
the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface Contaminated
transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior Cornea
that portion of the cornea recovered for transplantation in situ Corneal Sclera Button
an official of a local community who holds inquests concerning sudden, violent, and unexplained deaths Coroner
obesity; having an abnormal amount of fat on the body Corpulence
embalming fluid that contains dyes and coloring agents intended to restore a more natural skin tone through the embalming process Cosmetic Fluid
dye that helps to cover internal discolorations such as jaundice Counter Staining Compound
plastic garment designed to cover the body from the chest down to the upper thigh Coverall
method used to embalm the sat_flash_1s of the cranial cavity through aspiration and injection of the cranial chamber by passage of a trocar through the cribriform plate Cranial Embalming
those elements remaining after cremation of a dead human body Cremated Remains
crackling sensation produced when gasses trapped in tissues are palpated, as in subcutaneous emphysema Crepitation
a disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology, assumed to be a slow virus; because of unknown etiology, care givers using invasive procedures use extreme caution Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
thin, medial portion of the ethmoid bone of the skull Cribriform Plate
irreversible cessation of all vital functions; (nonlegal definition) Death
noise made by a moribund person caused by air passing through a residue of mucous in the trachea and posterior oral cavity Death Rattle
the semi-convulsive twitches which often occur before death Death Struggle
composition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria; aerobic proteolysis Decay
separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes Decomposition
loss of moisture from a body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem Dehydration
a protein whose structure has been changed by a physical or chemical agent Denatured Protein
process of drying out Desiccation
skin slip; sloughing off of the epidermis, wherein there is a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis Desquamation
separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane Dialysis
the difference between potential and actual pressure Differential Pressure
the movement of molecules or other particles in a solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached Diffusion
passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location; movement of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids Diffusion (Fluid)
anatomical term describing fingers and toes; the thumb is #1 for each hand and the large toe is #1 for each foot Digits
any abnormal color in or upon the human body Discoloration
any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a body part, organ, or system Disease
an agent, usually chemical, applied to an inanimate object/surface to destroy disease-causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores Disinfectant
the destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on a body Disinfection
the movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries Distribution (Fluid)
tubular instrument of varying diameter and shape, preferably with a plunger, that is inserted into a vein in drainage of blood and to restrict the exit of vascular embalming fluid Drain Tube
discharge or withdrawal of blood, interstitial fluid and embalming fluids from the body during vascular embalming; usually removed through a vein in the body Drainage
OSHA required safety device for a release of a copious amount of water in a short period of time Drench Shower
condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed Ischemic necrosis (Dry Gangrene)
substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution; dyes are classified as to their capacity to permanently impart color to the tissue of the body into which they are injected Dye (Coloring Agent)
extravasation of blood into tissue; a bruise Ecchymosis
ECG (EKG); record of the electrical activity of the heart Electrocardiogram
abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissues or body cavities Edema
EEG; a record of the electrical activity of the brain Electroencephalogram
a device that uses a motor to create a suction for the purpose of aspiration Electric aspirator
an electrically heated blade which may be used to dry moist tissue, reduce swollen tissue, and restore contour Electric Spatula
process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to temporarily inhibit organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance Embalming
direct treatment other than vascular (arterial) embalming of the sat_flash_1s of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and then injection of chemicals using a trocar Cavity Embalming
injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or trocar Hypodermic Embalming
direct contact of internal or external body tissues with embalming chemicals Surface Embalming
the use of the vascular systems of the body for preservation, disinfection and restoration; usually accomplished through injection of embalming solutions into the arteries and drainage from the veins Vascular Embalming
that consideration given to the dead human body prior to, during, and after the embalming procedure is completed; documentation is recommended Embalming Analysis (case analysis)
procedures that isolate or remove the Bloodborne pathogen hazards from the workplace such as sharps disposal container and self sheathing needles Engineering Controls
the surroundings, conditions, or influences that affect an organism or the cells within an organism Environment
a US governmental agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority Environmental Protection Agency/EPA
an organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition Enzyme
to remove as by cutting out; the area from which something has been cut out Excision
any procedure used to prove a sign of death, usually performed by medical personnel Expert Tests of Death
a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral, contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee's duties Exposure Incident
outside the blood vascular system Extravascular
discoloration of the body outside the blood vascular system, for example, ecchymosis, Petechia, Hematoma, and postmortem stain Extravascular Blood Discoloration
from outside the body Extrinsic
removal of the eye for tissue transplantation, research and education Eye Enucleation
extravasation of blood as a result of eye enucleation Eye Enucleation Discoloration
OSHA required emergency safety device providing a steady stream of water for flushing the eyes Eye Wash Station
a thin plastic dome-like disc used to restore contour just beneath the eyelids; an aid in eye closure Eyecap
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Chemically, a triglycerides ester, composed of glycerol and fatty acids Fat
a product of decomposition of fats Fatty Acids
characterized by a high fever, causing dehydration of the body Febrile
bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates Fermentation
lesions of the mucous membrane of the lip or mouth caused by Herpes Simplex type I or II virus or by dehydration of the mucous membrane in a febrile disease Fever Blisters
rigidity of tissue due to chemical reaction Firming
the act of making tissue rigid; the solidification of a compound Fixation
an agent employed in the preparation of tissues, for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure; many agents are used, the most important one being formalin Fixative
a colorless poisonous gas; made by the oxidation of methanol; a potential occupational carcinogen Formaldehyde/HCHO
grey discoloration of the body caused by the reaction of formaldehyde from the embalming process with hemoglobin to form methyl-hemoglobin Formaldehyde Grey
OSHA regulation limiting the amount of occupation exposure to formaldehyde gas Formaldehyde Rule
boil; acute, deep seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle Furuncle
necrosis, death, of tissues of part of the human body usually due to deficient or absent blood supply Gangrene
necrosis is a wound infected by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus, the most common etiologic agent being Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene
extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body Gravity Filtration
apparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (.43 pounds of pressure per one foot elevation) Gravity Injector
instrument used to guide vein tubes into vessels Groove Director
historical instrument resembling a large hypodermic syringe attached to a bottle apparatus; used to create either pressure for injection or vacuum for aspiration Hand Pump
water containing large amounts of mineral salts; the water (vehicle) to be used in mixing vascular embalming solutions needs to have these mineral salts removed or sequestered Hard Water
chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb and to disinfect; often used in cavity treatment of autopsied bodies Hardening Compound
OSHA regulation that deals with identifying and limiting exposure to occupational hazards Hazard Communication Standard/Rule
an agent or material exposing one to risk Hazardous Material
piece of equipment used to maintain the head in the proper position during the embalming process Head Rest
blood present in vomitus; vomiting blood Hematemesis
a swelling or mass of clotted blood confined to an organ or space caused by a ruptured vessel Hematoma
the non protein portion of hemoglobin; the red pigment of hemoglobin Heme
the red respiratory portion of the red blood cells; iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to cells Hemoglobin
destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin Hemolysis
inflammation of the liver; it may be caused by a variety of agents, including viral infections, bacterial invasion, and physical or chemical agents; it is usually accompanied by fever, jaundice, and an enlarged liver Hepatitis
a severe infectious blood borne virus Hepatitis B Virus/HBV
an inflammatory skin disease marked by small vesicles in clusters, usually restricted to diseases caused by Herpesvirus Herpes
special vascular (arterial) fluid with an HCHO sat_flash_1 of 25 to 36 percent High Preservation Demand Fluids
a 5 percent sodium hypochlorite solution; twelve ounces of household bleach with 116 ounces of water yields one gallon of a 105 household bleach solution (5,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite) Household Bleach
a type of retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human Immunodeficiency Virus/HIV
body of a deceased person, including cremated remains Human Remains
chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture Humectant
apparatus that is connected to the water supply; when the water is turned on a suction is developed and is used to aspirate the sat_flash_1s of body cavities Hydroaspirator
abnormal accumulation of fluids in a saclike structure; especially the scrotal sac Hydrocele
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluids in the ventricles of the brain Hydrocephalus
reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down; in hydrolysis of proteins, the addition of water accompanied by action of enzymes results in the breakdown of protein into amino acids Hydrolysis
abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac Hydropericardium
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity Hydrothorax
absorbing moisture readily Hygroscopic
a solution having greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared Hypertonic Solution
injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or trocar Hypodermic Embalming
settling of blood and/or other fluids to dependent portions of the body; the process of settling out blood to the capillaries Hypostasis
a solution having a lesser concentration of a dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared Hypotonic Solution

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