Chapter 2

Question Answer
Dosage forms -Tab. form orally (by mouth) (po)
-Suppository form (for vomiting pats.) (pr)
-Topically (on the surf.)
-Systemically (on the body as a whole)
-On the skin (rash or skin conds.)
-Oral liq. form (for children)
-Transdermal patch (through the sk
Solid dosage forms tabs, buccal tabs., subling. tabs., chewable tabs., effervescent tabs., capsules, enteric-coated tabs., film-coated, pills, controlled-released prods., lozenges/pastilles, powds., troches, suppositories, vag. tabs.
Tablets are the most () solid dosage form available. common
Tablets are made of (), how () it is determines how the tablet can be used. Pressed powder, hard
Tablets vary in (), (), (), (), (), and (). Shape, size, weight, color, dissolution properties, method of delivery
Some tablets are scored with a () that allows it to be easily () to provide additional medication (). groove, broken, strengths
Buccal tablets are designed to dissolve () when placed between the () and (). slowly, cheek, gums
Buccal tablets bypass the () tract. Digestive
Buccal tablets give a () release of medication. Prolonged
Sublingual tablets are designed to dissolve () and produce a () drug response when placed under the (), not (). immediately, rapid, tongue, swallowed
Sublingual tablets: the skin underneath the tongue is () and () and allows medication to be quickly (). thin, vascular, absorbed
Sublingual tablets: bypasses the () tract. Digestive
Example of sublingual tablet? Sublingual nitroglycerin tablets
What kind of tablets are designed to be easily chewed and then swallowed? Chewable tablets
Chewable tablets: the () are different than swallowed tablets. dissolution properties
Example of chewable tablet? Amoxicillin Chewable tablet
Effervescent tablets ("plop-plop", "fizz-fizz", Mentos and coke) use a () reaction–the release of () gas–to () tablet (). chemical, carbon dioxide, hasten, dissolution
Example of effervescent tablet? Alka-Seltzer
What kind of tablets are coated with a hard-shell coating to protect the drug from acid in the stomach? Enteric tablets
Enteric tablets () the release of the medication until the tablet reaches the () tract. delay, intestinal
Enteric tablets are normally best absorbed in the () pH of the (). basic, duodenum
Enteric tablets: release of the medication into the stomach may render the medication () or may () the stomach lining. inactive, irritate
Example of an enteric tablet? Enteric-coated aspirin (for people who take an abundance of aspirin…if not, hole in stomach)
What kind of tablet is used to mask the unpleasant taste of some drugs? Film-coated
What is an example of a film-coated tablet? Tylenol Caplets
What are gelatin "containers" (either hard or soft) filled with powder drugs, drug granules, a liquid drug formulation, or an oil? Capsules
() capsules contain powders, granules, or beads. Examples? Hard
() capsules contain medication in a liquid form. Examples? Soft
-Vit. E Caps, OTC (over the counter) remedies
Patients typically find () easier to swallow than (). Capsules, tablets
() were made from powdered natural materials such as plants and animal organs. Pills
() was combined with a sticky material so that it could be rolled around into a round mass called a pill. Powder
Pills are an () dosage form. outdated
It is more professional to use the appropriate term "()" or "()" to refer to specific medications. tablet, capsule
People often still use "pill" to refer to any () dosage form. solid
() are formulated to produce a constant release of medication over an extreme period of time. Controlled-Released Products
Controlled-released products allow for () for a longer duration. consistent blood level
Controlled-released products () the number of doses that must be taken. reduce
Controlled-released can be designated in various ways: LA (long-acting), SA (sustained action), SR (sustained release), CR (controlled release), TR (timed release), CD (controlled dissolution), ER, XL, XR (extended release)
() or () are hard tablets or molded shapes containing drugs in a sweetened, flavored base. Pastilles, lozenges
Pastilles or lozenges look similar to hard candy. Example? Cough drops
Pastilles/lozenges are designated to () in the mouth while it () releases drug for () absorption. dissolve, slowly, oral
Pastilles/lozenges are particularly useful for administration of () medication for () () and for the relief of () during cancer chemotherapy. pain, chronic pain, nausea
() can be hard or have a gummy consistency. Troches
Troches provide medication to the () cavity. oral
Example of troches? Mycelex (thrush-yeast infection in mouth)
Drug powders for inhalation are a very fine () form of the drug that is mixed with an () (give example) and packed in a ()-dose (). crystalline, inert sugar, fructose/sucrose/lactose, single, blister
The blister is inserted into a special apparatus called a "()", which pierces the blister, () the drug, and allows the patient to inhale the medication. diskhaler, aerosolizes
What are solid dosage forms that have been crushed to make a finely-milled texture? Powders
Powders can be used () or (). internally, externally
(): typically mixed into a liquid to improve the taste and make it easier to swallow. Example? Internally; Questran powder
How are external powders used? Example? Topically; Tinactin
() are designed to be inserted into the body cavity: (), (), (). Suppositories, vagina, rectum, urethra
Suppositories are designed to () at internal body temperature–98.6 Fahrenheit or 37 Celsius–to release medication into the body. melt
Suppositories can provide a () effect or be absorbed into the () to give () effect. local, bloodstream, systemic
Example of suppository that provides a systemic effect? Phenergan for nausea
Vaginal tablets are inserted into the vagina where they () to provide both a () and () effect. dissolve, topical, systemic
() provide a route for medication to those patients who cannot swallow solid dosage forms: young, elderly, after oral surgery. Liquid dosage forms
The () of liquid dosage forms differ from solid dosage forms. physical properties
Liquid dosage forms can have a shorter () and may need (). shelf life, refrigeration
LDF's may need to mask (). taste
LDF's include: solutions, suspensions, reconstituted liquids, emulsions, elixirs, fluid extracts and tinctures, spirits and essences, foams, shampoos, colloids, mouthwash/rinse, parental medications, inhalation solutions
LDF: ()-sweetened liquid that contains the drug, sugar, and flavoring syrup
LDF: ()-similar to a syrup, but contain a high % of alcohol Elixir
LDF: ()-oil or active portion of a plant or herb that is usually removed, or extracted, with alcohol (ex: oil of peppermint) Extract
LDF: ()-alcohol-based drug form; used topically only; not to be taken internally (ex: merthiolate) tincture
() are prepared to be the complete dissolution of medications in a suitable liquid. Solutions
Solutions and suspensions can be taken () and applied (). internally, externally
Example of syrup or solution that contains sugar? Zyrtec
(): used to induce vomiting and treatment of poisoning Syrup of Ipecac
Another definition: ()-solutions that contain alcohol tinctures
() are composed of water and drug particles that do not dissolve but remain suspended in the water. Suspensions
The suspended particles will settle to the () and must be redistributed by shaking. bottom
Labels on suspensions will read: (). These are called (). Shake Well Before Use, auxiliary labels
Suspensions need to be handled carefully, as the drug particles tend to sink to the bottom very quickly while the dose is being withdrawn. This may cause the wrong () of drug to be dispensed. dose
Reconstituted liquids require the addition of () within the dispensing pharmacy. Distilled water
Reconstituted liquids are stored as a () because of the rapid () of the medication when stored in () form. powder, deterioration, liquid
Reconstituted liquids need to be shaken () reconstitution and () use. after, before
Most, not all, reconstituted liquids need to be (). refrigerated
Emulsions are preparations containing () and (). oil, water
In emulsions, in time, oil and water () to form two clearly visible layers. separate
Shaking the emulsions will () the layers. re-disperse
Emulsions must be shaken before () dispensing
() are clear, sweet combinations of water and alcohol. Elixirs
Elixirs are intended for () use. Oral
What contains plant extracts as the active ingredient in water and/or alcohol? Fluids, extracts, and tinctures
() contain substances that evaporate quickly in ambient (exposed to air) conditions. Spirits and essences
Spirits and essences must be kept in () to prevent losses due to (). airtight containers, evaporation
System in which gas has been incorporated into a liquid, and when released, the entrapped gas gives the product a very light consistency Foams
An easy method to apply medication to the scalp Shampoo
Liquid preparation which dry to form a flexible film that can be removed from the skin Colloid
Provide medication to the oral cavity. Patients are directed to swish and swallow or swish and spit. Mouthwash/rinse.
Sterile products administered by injection or infusion in order to bypass the gastrointestinal tract. Parenteral medications
The administration of parenteral medications involves the use of a () to penetrate the skin. needle
Bypassing the () disrupts the body's major defense against infection; therefore, parenteral medications are prepared using () technique to reduce (). skin, aseptic, contamination
Inhalation solutions are placed in a () to provide () application of medication to the () tract. nebulizer, topical, respiratory
Semi-Solid Dosage Forms: Ointments, creams, lotions, gels/jellies, pastes, liniments
() are thick emulsions of a drug suspended in a waxy base, like petroleum. Usually used (). Ointments, topically
Ointments are intended for applying medication to the () or (). skin, mucous membrane
Ointments are good for () or areas that need (). dry skin, protection
Ointments are () and difficult to remove. greasy
Creams are ()-oil droplets suspended in water. Emulsions
Creams should never be () or exposed to (), will cause cream to separate into () and (). frozen, heat, oil, water
Creams () the skin without being greasy. moisturize
Creams are easily (). rinsed-off
Creams are referred to as () because they are () and leave the skin surface dry and non-tacky. Vanishing creams, translucent
Lotions are similar to (). creams
Lotions are typically () in consistency to aid in covering a () heavily covered with (). thinner, greater body area, hair
() and () contain very small particles of liquid medication. Gels and jellies
The application of () results in a dry surface. gel
Gels and jellies are () to apply to body areas covered with hair. easy
() are ointments to which a large quantity of insoluble solids have been added to make an ointment stiff. Pastes
Pastes are relatively () to water and create a good () for the skin. impermeable, protective barrier
Pastes are ideal for () and similar conditions. diaper rash
() contain various substances that give a heat-producing effect used for relief of pain of muscle aches. Liniments
Other dosage forms: tape, transdermal patches, aerosols, implants, chewing gum
Tape is a quick and easy way to apply () medications. topical
Medication is allowed to () from the tape into the skin. absorb
Tape improves () of the medication and provides a (). absorption, protective barrier
() hold medication in a reservoir designed to provide a continual supply of medication over a period of time. Transdermal patches
With transdermal patches, medication is () into the () through the (). absorbed blood skin
() provide medication to the respiratory tract. Aerosols
Aerosols can be accomplished by using a () or a (). metered dose inhaler, nebulizer system
With aerosols, medication travels through the ()in very () or within tiny () and lands on the () of the () to provide a () effect. air, small particles, water droplets, mucous membranes, respiratory tract, therapeutic
() are surgically placed subcutaneously to release medication over a long period of time. Implants
Implants are ()-removed after the period of (). surgically, effectiveness
() can be used to deliver medication to the oral cavity or systemically if the medication is absorbed through the oral mucosa. Chewing gum
As the patient (), the gum releases medication. chews
Releases can be controlled with special (). chewing patterns
Defines how the drug gets into the body route of administration
The most common route of administration Oral or PO
Tablets made to dissolve under the tongue; also marketed in a spray formulation Sublingual tablets
The underside of the tongue and the floor of the mouth contain large amounts of () near the surface that allow the drug to be absorbed into the system very quickly blood vessels
A drug in drop or spray form intranasal
A drug "patch" is used, which slowly releases the drug into the skin. Transdermal
Powder or liquid form in combination with an inhalant apparatus, to be taken directly into the lungs Inhalants
Cream or suppository form; inserted in rectum or vagina; used for vomiting patients Administered through body cavities
Drugs administered through the lining of the cheek; lozenge or buccal tablet inserted between the cheek and gum Buccal
Drugs for the eye or ears Drops (gtt)
Applied to the inside of the bottom eyelid (antibiotic ointments) Ophthalmic ointments
Drugs administered by injection Parenteral drugs
3 most common types of injections intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous
intraarterial in the artery
intracardiac in the heart
intrathecal in the fluid in the space between the spinal meninges
intradermal within the skin layers
3 ways intravenous injections are prepared bolus, iv drip, piggyback iv
one-time single-dose injection bolus
a bag or bottle that allows the drug to be infused over a long period of time IV drip
a solution contained in a smaller IV bag that is infused along with the primary intravenous drip, usually through the same tubing piggyback IV
Intramuscular injections are placed into skeletal muscle allowing the drug to enter the bloodstream more () slowly
Intramuscular injections must first diffuse through () before entering the (), therefore requires a () in order to penetrate the muscle. muscle tissue, bloodstream, large bore needle
Advantage of intramuscular injections slow release of the drug into the system minimizes shock to the system, allowing your system to gradually acclimate to the effects of the drug
Both provide for a slow rate of delivery of drug to the system Subcutaneous and intradermal injections
Placed within the skin layers Intradermal
Subcutaneous and intradermal injections both must be dispensed with a very fine needle () gauge on the syringe. 25-30
Specialized injections: ()-administered directly into an artery; requires a large bore needle because arteries are very muscular and the blood within them is under high pressure intraarterial injections
Specialized injections: ()-placed into the space between the spinal cord and spinal meninges intrathecal injections
Specialized injections: ()-placed directly into the heart; allows for fast action of a drug by placing the drug at the site of the organ intracardiac injection

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